3 years ago

ThePartnership no. 14

  • Text
  • Vegetable
  • Breeding
  • Growers
  • Pepper
  • Products
  • Zaden
  • Cultivation
  • Enza
  • Partnership
  • Organic

Quick-test to confirm a

Quick-test to confirm a suspect presence of a plant pathogen after finding a symptomatic plant Hygiene A pathogen can be on the seed, in the seed, or both. And for seed infection, infection has to take place during seed production. One could argue that the solution is obvious: do not harvest the seeds from diseased plants. Hiddink explains that this is not as simple as it sounds, because sometimes you cannot tell whether the plant is infected just by looking at it. “We are working closely with the Seed Production department to reduce the risk of infection during the seed production process. For example, we keep a close eye on the seed production crop during the cultivation by crop inspection and are performing leaf tests regularly. This allows us to detect any infection at an early stage and take measures to prevent further spread of diseases. Also we develop and implement hygiene protocols together with seed producers. The current state of the art is Good Seed and Plant Practices (GSPP) for the production of Clavibacter-free tomato seeds. We have implemented at GSPP-sites strict hygiene protocols, to ensure that we produce the healthiest possible seeds. This extra certainty offers great added value for our customers and for Enza Zaden.” Tests, tests, tests All produced seeds are checked for presence of seed-borne pathogens when they are received. For the detection different techniques are used. In seed pathology we know direct and indirect tests. Indirect tests are based on finding RNA/DNA, virus capsids, etc. “This does give us an indication that an infectious or viable pathogen may be present, but we don’t yet know for certain. Some of these methods are so sensitive, that they can detect very small amounts of pathogen DNA or RNA, which has no biological relevance. Therefore, following a positive result for an indirect test, we always have to perform a second, direct test to confirm viability and pathogenicity.” A good example of a direct test is a grow-out. A part of the batch is grown in strict separation in our greenhouses, under conditions that would allow the disease to manifest. The researchers will then assess development of the symptoms. “If a young plant exhibits symptoms of disease in this situation, then it’s clear that the seed has been infected by a viable pathogen. Even if only one or a few plants is/are sick, the batch is considered infected and cannot be released.” Research Where will these developments lead to in the future? Hiddink explains that a lot can still be achieved in the field of disease detection. Technologies such as PCR are becoming increasingly sensitive, but – as previously mentioned – this does not give all the information about the risk of a disease outbreak in that specific batch. “Whether a disease will take hold depends on a number of different factors. It is a combination of level of infection, climate and interactions between plant, pathogen and environment. We are conducting a lot of research to ensure that we take the correct decisions. This makes Enza Zaden an interesting partner in discussions about phytosanitary risks and control measures. But above all, this research will help to protect our customers’ crops and give them a disease free start.” Corn salad seeds treated with different disinfection treatments When humans or other mammals eat or even touch capsaicinoids, a sensation is sent to the brain that the pepper is hot. Birds, on the other hand, are completely immune to its effects, so they can eat the fruits of a very hot chile peppers and spread the seeds. Interesting, isn’t it? Continue reading to find out other things you probably didn’t know about hot pepper. Heat profile The heat profile of a chile pepper was developed by Dr. Paul Bosland to describe the heat sensation one feels when consuming a chile pepper. A heat profile has five components: Development: Does the heat come on immediately or is it delayed by 5, 15, or 30 seconds? Duration: Does the heat last for a short time, disappearing quickly, or does it last for many minutes or even hours? Location: Where in the mouth is the heat sensation? Is it on the lips front of mouth, tip of the tongue, mid-palate, or throat? Feeling: Is it sharp like a pin-prick or flat like the heat was painted on with a brush? Intensity: Commonly called mild, medium, Feeling hot, hot, hot! Hot peppers, or chile peppers, are used for consumption all over the world. Some people believe the seeds of the pepper are the spiciest part, but it’s actually the flesh near them that sets your tongue on fire. Capsaicinoids (or capsaicin) is the active component in the pepper that gives the burning sensation. The heat is a defense mechanism used by the plants to prevent their seed from being consumed and destroyed by predators or succumbing to fungal diseases. or hot, but accurately measured by Scoville Heat Units. Heat level The heat level of a chile pepper is expressed in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). SHU are intended for comparison only, because heat levels can fluctuate greatly from location, and even from pod to pod on the same plant. Chile peppers range in heat from 0 to more than 2,000,000 SHU. The Carolina Reaper is officially the World’s Hottest Pepper as ranked by Guinness Records. It was bred for heat and that it is: with an average SHU of 1,641,000 SHU and peaks at 2.2 Million SHU. Big market As one of the most important cross-cultural vegetables in the world, chile peppers are also an important raw ingredient due to its numerous and varied applications across a number of markets, such as pharmaceutical, industrial, and other nonfood markets. Fully 20% of the worldwide population consumes chile peppers and an increasing number of countries are developing their own chile industry for domestic consumption and international export. Global trade in chile peppers is worth nearly 30 billion dollars, greater than that for coffee or tea. My tongue is burning! What can I do? Capsaicin dissolves in fat, oil, and alcohol but not in water. Drinking water after biting down on a chile pepper will only spread the capsaicin around the inside of your mouth, where it will come in contact with more pain receptors and amp up the burning sensation. Steer clear of beer and soda too – both beverages are mostly water. The fat and oil in dairy products will dissolve the capsaicin and eliminate the burn. Opt for whole milk or full-fat sour cream or yogurt to do the trick. Milk will dissolve and remove capsaicin from the reactive area. Worlds hottest sauce Blair's Ultra Death Sauce developed once a Guinness World Records-certificate with 16 Million SHU. The bottle contains a warning for it to not ‘even (be) opened without using extreme caution’. Ultra Death is their hottest ‘regular’ sauce, a tantalizing mix of habanero, cayenne, serrano, and jolokia peppers. In focus Sources see colophon 24 | The Partnership The Partnership | 25

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